The credit facilities given by the banks where actual bank funds are not involved are termed as 'non‑fund based facilities'. These facilities are divided in three broad categories as under:
q Letters of credit
q Co‑acceptance of‑bills/deferred payment guarantees.
Units for the above facilities are also simultaneously sanctioned by banks while sanctioning other fund based credit limits.
Facilities for co‑acceptance of bills/deferred payment guarantees are generally required for acquiring plant and machinery and may, technically be taken as a substitute for term loan which would require detailed appraisal of the borrower's needs and financial position in the same manner as in case of any other term loan proposal. The co‑acceptance limits may also be sanctioned under IDBI's Bill Rediscounting Scheme which has been discussed in detail in chapter 5.
Reserve Bank of India has also issued detailed guidelines to commercial banks in respect of non‑fund based credit facilities. Some of the important points to be kept in view in this regard are discussed below:
q Bank should normally open letters of credit for their own customers who enjoy credit facilities with them Customers maintaining current account only and not enjoying any credit limits should not be granted L/C facilities except in cases where no other credit facility is needed by the customer.
q The request of such customer for sanctioning and opening of letter of credit should be properly scrutinised to establish the genuine need of the customer. The customer may be, required to submit a complete loan proposal Including financial statements to satisfy the bank about his, needs and also his financial resources, to mire the bills drawn under
q Where a customer enjoys credit facilities with some other bank, the reasons for his approaching the bank for sanctioning L/C limits have to be clearly stated. The bank opening L/C on behalf of such customer should invariably make a reference to the, existing banker of the customer.
q In all cases of opening of letters of credit, the bank has to ensure that the customer is able to retire the bills drawn under L/C as per the financial arrangement already finalised.
q The conditions relating to obligant being a customer of the bank enjoying credit facilities as discussed in case of letters of credit are equally applicable for guarantees also. In fact, guarantee facilities also cannot be sanctioned in isolation.
q Financial guarantees will be issued by the banks only if they are satisfied that the customer will be in a position to reimburse the bank in case the guarantee is invoked and the bank is required to make the payment in terms of guarantee.
q Performance guarantee will be issued by the banks only on behalf of those customers with whom the bank has sufficient experience and is satisfied that the customer has the necessary experience and means to perform the obligations under the contract and is not likely to commit any default.
q As a rule, banks will guarantee shorter maturities and leave longer maturities to be guaranteed by other institutions. Accordingly, no bank guarantee will normally have a maturity of more than 10 years.
q Banks should not normally issue guarantees on behalf of those customer's who enjoy credit facilities with other banks.
1. Limits for co‑acceptance of bills will be sanctioned by the banks after detailed appraisal of customer's requirement is completed and the bank is fully satisfied about the genuineness of the need of the customer. Further customers who enjoy other limits with the bank should be extended such limits.
2. Only genuine trade bills shall be co‑accepted and the banks should ensure that the goods covered by bills co‑accepted are actually received in the stock accounts of the borrowers. The valuation of goods as mentioned in the accompanying invoice should be verified to see that there is no overvaluation of stocks.
3. The banks shall not extend their co‑acceptance to house bills/ accommodation bills drawn by group concerns on one another.
4. Before discounting/purchasing bills co‑accepted by other banks for Rs.2 lakh and above from a single party, the bank should obtain written confirmation of the concerned controlling office of the accepting bank.
5. When the value of total bills discounted/purchased (which have been co‑accpeted by other banks) exceed Rs.20 lakh for a single borrower/ group of borrowers prior approval of the Head Office of the co‑accepting bank shall be obtained by the discounting bank in writing.
6. Banks are precluded from co‑accepting bills drawn under Buyer's Line of Credit schemes of financial institutions like IDBI, SIDBI, PFC etc. Similarly banks should not co‑accept bills drawn by NBFCs. Further, banks should not extend co‑acceptance on behalf of their buyers/constituents under the SIDBI scheme.
7. However, banks may co‑accept bills drawn, under Seller's Line of Credit schemes for Bill Discounting operated by the financial institutions like IDBI, SIDBI, PFC etc. without any limit subject to buyer's capacity to pay and the compliance with exposure norms applicable to the borrower.
8. Where banks open L/C and also co‑accept bills drawn under such L/C, the discounting banks, before discounting such co‑accepted bills, must ascertain the reason for co‑acceptance of bills and satisfy themselves about the genuineness of the transaction.
9. Co‑acceptance facilities will normally not be sanctioned to customers enjoying credit limit with other banks.
Operational aspects of IDBI bills rediscounting scheme have already been discussed and similar procedure shall be adopted while allowing co acceptance facilities which are not covered under the scheme. Important operational aspects in respect of letter of credit facilities and issuance of guarantees will be discussed in this chapter.
Letter of credit is, a method of settlement of payment of a trade transaction and is widely used to finance purchase of machinery and raw material etc. It contains a written undertaking given by the bank on behalf of the purchaser to the seller to make payment of a stated amount on presentation of stipulated documents and fulfilment of all the terms and conditions incorporated therein. All letters of credit in India relating to the foreign trade i.e., export and import letters of credit are subject to provisions of 'Uniform Customs & Practice for Documentary Credits' (UCPDC). The latest revision of these provisions effective from 1st January, 1994 has been issued by International Chamber of Commerce as its publication No. 500 of 1994. These provisions neither have the status of law or automatic application but parties to a letter of credit bind themselves to these provisions by specifically agreeing to do so. These provisions have almost universal application and help to arrive at unambiguous interpretation of various terms used in letters of credit and also set the obligations, responsibilities and rights of various parties to a letter of credit.
Inland letters of credit may also be issued subject to the provisions of UCPDC and it is, therefore, important that customers should be fully aware of these provisions and shall also understand complete L/C mechanism as these transactions will find increasing use in the coming days. Complete text of UCPDC is not being reproduced. However, important articles have been given as extracts wherever necessary. An attempt has been made to explain the L/C mechanism in full as there are some inherent risks and wrong notions while dealing with these transactions.
Article 2 of UCPDC defines a letter of credit as under:
The expressions "documentary credit(s) and standby letter(s) of credit used herein (hereinafter referred to as "credit(s)" means any arrangement, however, named or described whereby a bank (the issuing bank), acting at the request and on the instructions of a customer (the applicant of the credit) or on its own behalf.
(i) is to make a payment to or to the order of a third party (the "beneficiary"), or is to accept and pay bills of exchange (Draft(s)) drawn by the beneficiary,
(ii) authorises another bank to effect such payment, or to accept and pay such bills of exchange (Draft(s)),
(iii) authorises another bank to negotiate against stipulated document(s), provided that the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with.
For the above purpose the branches of a bank in different countries are considered another bank.
Letter of credit is a written undertaking by a bank (issuing bank) given to the seller (beneficiary) at the request and in accordance with the instructions of buyer (applicant) to effect payment of a stated amount within a prescribed time limit and against stipulated documents provided all the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with".
Letters of credit thus offers both parties to a trade transaction a degree of security. The seller can look forward to the issuing bank for payment instead of relying on the ability and willingness of the buyer to pay. He is further assured of payment being received on due date enabling him to have proper financial planning. The only condition being attached is submission of stipulated documents and compliance with the terms and conditions of credit. The buyer on the other hand will be obliged to pay only after receipt of documents of title to goods to his satisfaction.
Letter of credit is an independent document in itself as provided vide article 3 of UCPDC which states that: "Credits, by their nature, are separate transactions from the sales or other contract(s) on which they may be based and banks are in no way concerned with or bound by such contract(s), even if any reference whatsoever to such contract(s) is included in the credit." This article is very important and has a direct bearing on the relationship of the opener with bank. Many disputes have arisen due to the reference of sale contract in the letter of credit. The letter of credit is issued in accordance with the instructions of the applicant who should provide complete and precise instructions to the bank to avoid any dispute later. The undertaking of a bank to pay, accept and pay drafts or negotiate and/or to fulfil any other obligations under the credit is not subject to claims or defences by the Applicant resulting from his relationship with the issuing Bank or the Beneficiary.
Another very important provision which is very vital to letter of credit operations is regarding disputes emanating from the quality/quantity of goods covered under a letter of credit. Article 4 of UCPDC states:
"In credit operations all parties concerned deal with documents, and not with cods, services and/or other performances to which the documents may relate.
An important point which emerges from the above article is that any dispute regarding the quality/quantity of the goods may have to be settled outside the terms of letter of credit. Letter of credit thus provides no protection on this account and the applicant must specify submission of necessary weight certificate/quality analysis certificates etc. as considered necessary to satisfy himself regarding the goods on the basis of these documents alone.
1. Applicant/Opener. It is generally the buyer of the goods who gets the letter of credit issued by his banker in favour of the seller. The person on whose behalf and under whose instructions the letter of credit is issued is known as applicant/ opener of the credit.
2. Opening bank/issuing bank. The bank issuing the letter of credit.
3. Beneficiary. The seller of goods in whose favour the letter of credit is issued.
4. Advising Bank. Notification regarding issuing of letter of credit may be directly sent to the beneficiary by the opening bank. It is, however, customary to advise the letter of credit through sane other bank operating at the place/country of seller. The bank which advises the letter of credit to the beneficiary is known as advising bank.
5. Confirming Bank. A letter of credit substitutes the credit worthiness of the buyer with that of the issuing bank. It may sometimes happen especially in import trade that the issuing bank itself is not widely known in the exporter's country and exporter is not prepared to rely on the L/C opened by that bank. In such cases the opening bank may request other bank usually in the country of exporter to add its confirmation which amounts to an additional undertaking being given by that bank to the beneficiary. The bank adding its confirmation is known as confirming bank. The confirming bank has the same liabilities towards the beneficiary as that of opening bank.
6. Negotiating Bank. The bank who negotiates the documents drawn under letter of credit and makes payment to beneficiary.
The function of advising bank, confirming bank and negotiating bank may be undertaken by a single bank only.
Any business/industrial venture will involve purchase transactions relating to machine/other capital goods and raw material etc., and also sale transactions relating to its products. The customer may, therefore, find himself on either side of a L/C transaction at different times depending upon his position at that particular moment. He may be an applicant for a letter of credit for his purchases while be the beneficiary under other letter of credit for his sale transaction. It is, therefore, necessary that complete L/C mechanism covering the liabilities and rights & both the applicant and the beneficiary are understood for maximum advantage.
The complete mechanism of a letter of credit may be divided in three parts as under:
1. Issuing of Credit. Letter of credit is always issued by the buyer's bank (issuing bank) at the request and on behalf and in accordance with the instructions of the applicant. The letter of credit may either be advised directly or through some other bank. The advising bank is responsible for transmission of credit and verifying the authenticity of signature of issuing bank and is under no commitment to pay the seller.
The advising bank may also be required to add confirmation and in that case will assume all the liabilities of issuing bank in relation to the beneficiary as stated already. Refer to diagram given below for complete process of issuance of credit.
Issuance of Letter of credit
2. Negotiation of Documents by beneficiary. On receipt of letter of credit, the beneficiary shall arrange to supply the goods as per the terms of L/C and draw necessary documents as required under L/C. The documents will then be presented to the negotiating bank for payment/acceptance as the case may be. The negotiating bank will make the payment to the beneficiary and obtain reimbursement from the opening bank in terms of credit. The entire process of negotiation is diagrammatically represented as under:
Supply of goods
Negotiating Issuing Bank
3. Settlement of Bills Drawn under Letter of Credit by the opener. The last step involved in letter of credit mechanism is retirement of documents received under L/C by the opener,
On receipt of documents drawn under L/C, the opening bank is required to closely examine the documents to ensure compliance of the terms and conditions of credit and present the same to the opener for his scrutiny. The opener should then make payment to the opening bank and take delivery of documents so that delivery of goods can be obtained by him. This aspect of L/C transaction is represented as under:
Delivery of Goods Goods
The 'Letters of Credit' may be divided in two broad categories as under:
· Revocable letter of credit. This may be amended or cancelled without prior warning or notification to the beneficiary. Such letter of credit will not offer any protection and should not be accepted as beneficiary of credit.
· Irrevocable letter of credit. This cannot be amended or cancelled without the agreement of all parties thereto. This type of letter of credit is mainly in use and offers complete protection to the seller against subsequent development against his interest.
It may, however, be mentioned here that every letter of credit must clearly indicate whether it is revocable or irrevocable. In the absence of such indication the credit shall be deemed to be irrevocable. The beneficiary, on receipt of credit, must therefore, examine that the letter of credit is not indicated as revocable.
The letter of credit may provide drawing of documents either on D.P. basis in which case the documents will be delivered against payment or on D.A. basis in which case the documents will be delivered against acceptance. The letter of credit may also call either for demand documents which are required to be paid on presentation or usance documents the payment of which will be required to be made after an agreed period of usance. All these will be required to be settled at the time of finalising the sale contract and clear instructions to the bank in this regard will have to be given at the time of opening of the letter of credit.
There are a few special types of credits in vogue offering a degree of' convenience in operations. Brief details of these credits are given below:
· Revolving Letter of Credit. The concept of revolving letter of credit is best illustrated by the following example:
Let us presume that goods of the total value of Rs.60 lacs are required to be purchased over a period of one year and requirement of those goods at a time is proximately Rs.10 lacs. If the terms of payment are under L/C the buyer may have two options as under:
(i) To open an L/C for Rs.60 lacs valid for 1 year and permit part shipment, or
(ii) To open letters of credit for Rs.10 lacs each on six different occasions.
Option (i) not only requires very high limits from the bank but will result in high cost of operations by way of commission charges. Option (ii) involves a lot inconvenience as the L/C will be required to be opened six times.
To obviate such difficulties, a revolving L/C can be opened under which the amount of L/C is renewed/reinstated after the original L/C amount has been utilised. Thus a revolving L/C for Rs.10 lacs valid for one year may be opened the above example. After negotiation and settlement of bills drawn under this C, the L/C amount may again be reinstated by the bank. The amount reinstated such a manner will again become available for negotiation.
· Transferable Letter of Credit. A transferable letter of credit is one that a be transferred by the original (first) beneficiary to one or more second benefiaries. It is normally used when the first beneficiary does not supply the merchandise himself but is a middleman and thus wishes to transfer part or all of his rights and obligations to actual suppliers as second beneficiaries.
The letter of credit is transferable only if it is specifically stated as transferable'. In case the credit is silent about it, the L/C will be deemed to be transferable. Further the L/C can be transferred only once which in other words means that 2nd beneficiary cannot transfer it to any other person. Under a transferable letter of credit the second beneficiary assumes the same rights and obligations as that of the original beneficiary.
The transfer of credit is, however, not to be confused with the right of assignment of benefits to which the beneficiary may become entitled under a letter of credit. The beneficiary is having right to assign the proceeds to which may be or may become entitled under the provisions of applicable law even case of non‑transferable credits.
These transferable credits are very much in vogue in export trade. The important points to be noted while dealing with transferable credits are stated low:
(i) The L/C should clearly indicate that it is transferable. In the absence of such indication the L/C would be deemed to be not transferable.
(ii) The Ist beneficiary under a transferable L/C has a right to transfer in part or whole to other parties (2nd beneficiaries). For this purpose he has to request the advising bank to issue an advice of transfer to the 2nd beneficiary(ies). The charges of the bank for effecting transfer are payable by the first beneficiary unless otherwise stated.
(iii) The advice of transfer issued by the bank along with copy of the original credit will be taken as a complete letter of credit for almost all practical purposes.
· Back to Back letter of Credit. A letter of credit which is backed by other letter of credit is termed as 'back to back' credit and is also used when middleman is involved in a sale transaction. Such transaction offers additional security of the letter of credit to the bank issuing back to back L/C. However, for successful completion of the entire transaction it must be ensured that back to back L/C is opened on the worse terms as compared to the terms under; the original letter of credit.
· Red Clause Letter of Credit. All letters of credit as discussed above provide a sort of guarantee of payment against documents which are drawn strictly in terms of subject letter of credit. In other words the benefit of L/C accrues only when shipment of goods is completed. Red Clause Letter of Credit goes a step further and authorises the advising bank to grant an advance to the beneficiary at the pre‑shipment stage itself. The advance by the advising bank shall be recovered at the time of negotiation of documents under that L/C. In case, however, no shipment is effected by the beneficiary and he fails to present documents under L/C, the bank making advance under red‑clause letter of credit will claim reimbursement of advance made from the issuing bank.
Important points/precautions which must be noted by the openers/beneficiaries at various stages of operations under a letter of credit are now discussed hereunder:
q Letter of credit offers almost complete protection to the seller but the buyer is put to many disadvantages and has to make payments against documents only. Before agreeing to open a letter of credit in favour of the seller, the opener must be satisfied with the creditworthiness and general reputation of the seller. Entire success of an L/C transaction depends on proper conduct of the seller. Confidential report on the seller must be obtained at the time of first transaction with him.
q Letter of credit also does not offer any protection for the quality/ quantity of goods supplied under the L/C. It would, therefore, be necessary to know the nature of goods and specify submission of quality reports/inspection reports from an independent agency to ensure receipt of goods of proper quality This is particularly important in case of import of chemicals and such other goods.
q The opener has to submit an L/C application to the opening bank. The instructions contained in the L/C application is the mandate for the issuing bank and letter of credit will be issued in accordance with this application. It is, therefore, necessary that complete and precise information must be given in the L/C application form specifying therein the description, unlit rate and quantity of the goods covered under IX and details of documents required in absolute clear and unambiguous terms. The reference to underlying sale contract must be avoided as far as possible. The L/C application must nevertheless contain all the required/information based on which L/C could be opened by the bank.
q After the L/C has been issued by the bank, a copy thereof must be obtained immediately. The L/C must be scrutinised to ensure that it has been properly issued and is in conformity with L/C application. Discrepancy, if any, must be brought to the notice of opening bank immediately.
At the time of Receipt of L/C and Negotiation of Documents
q On receipt of L/C from the opening/advising bank, the beneficiary must ensure that the letter of credit is advised without any superimposed clause. Sometimes an unauthenticated message may be received and advised by the bank which may not be acted upon unless authenticity of the message (L/C) is confirmed by the advising bank.
q The L/C must state on the face of if that it is irrevocable and must have been issued by a bank of repute. If the issuing bank is not widely known, confirmation from a local bank may be insisted upon before acting on such a Credit.
q The L/C must be scrutinised to ensure that the terms indicated are in conformity with the underlying sale contract. It does not contain any ambiguous clauses and documents required therein can be completed. If it has some conditions which cannot be compiled with, the matter should immediately be taken up with opener for amendment of L/C. Shipment of goods before ensuring that all the terms and conditions can be complied with may be risky as no protection will be offered under L/C.
q Necessary arrangement for shipment/despatch of goods shall be made after acceptance of L/C. The shipment and despatch must be made as per the terms of L/C and well within the period prescribed under L/C.
q After shipment of goods necessary documents must he prepared. Extreme care must be taken to prepare the documents as the payment will be dependent upon the acceptance of those documents under the L/C. Even a minor mistake in spelling or punctuation may prove to be enough ground for rejecting the documents. It is necessary that complete knowledge of all the Articles of UCPDC relating to documents must be obtained at the time of preparation of documents.
q The documents, complete in all respects, should then be presented to the bank for negotiation. The negotiating bank must be requested to closely examine the documents and indicate the discrepancies, if any. Efforts should then be made to remove those discrepancies and documents free of all discrepancies only must be negotiated.
q There may sometimes be some discrepancies which cannot be rectified and two options are now available as under:
(a) Get confirmation/authority of opening bank to negotiate discrepant documents, or
(b) Get the documents negotiated under reserve after giving suitable indemnity bond to the negotiating bank.
q The option (a) is more advantageous as it will ensure final payment at the, time of negotiation itself. The option (b) may be exercised only in exceptional circumstances as 'negotiation under reserve' does not offer any guarantee as to acceptance of documents under L/C.
q The final authority of acceptance of documents lies with the opening bank only who has to be given reasonable time for scrutinising the documents. Documents under L/C are negotiated by banks in India with recourse and if the documents are subsequently rejected by opening bank due to any reasons the negotiating bank will recover the amount of the beneficiary. It is, therefore, necessary that documents are always drawn strictly in conformity with the terms of L/C.
On receipt of advice of rejection of documents the negotiating bank must be instructed to initiate necessary steps to safeguard the interest of the beneficiary in light of various provisions of UCPDC.
The negotiating bank will transmit the documents to the opening bank after negotiation and obtain reimbursement in terms of the L/C. The opening bank will be given a reasonable time to scrutinise the documents and decide whether the documents are drawn in accordance with the terms of credit and are acceptable or to reject the documents. Reasonable time has since been specified by Article 13(b) of UCPDC and it is not to exceed seven banking days following the day of receipt of the documents. In case documents are rejected by the opening bank, it must give due notice of such rejection to the negotiating bank by fastest means and also place the documents at the disposal of the negotiating bank. The receipt of documents will also be advised by the opening bank to the applicant.
q Applicant must independently scrutinise the documents received under L/C and ensure that the documents can be accepted. In case any discrepancy is noted in the documents which is not acceptable, the documents must be rejected and an immediate notice should be given to the opening bank for such rejection. The opening bank may be instructed to take up the matter with negotiating bank suitably. Notice of rejection must invariably be given to the opening bank in writing.
q The documents if acceptable, must be taken upon due date for which necessary financial arrangement shall be made in advance.
A contract of guarantee can be defined as a contract to perform the promise, or discharge the liability of a third person in case of his default. The contract of guarantee has three principal parties as under:
(1) Principal debtor ‑ the person who has to perform or discharge
the liability and for whose default the
guarantee is given.
(2) Principal creditor ‑ the person to whom the guarantee is given
for due fulfilment of contract by principal
debtor. Principal creditor is also sometimes
referred to as beneficiary.
(3) Guarantor or Surety ‑ the person who gives the guarantee.
Bank provides guarantee facilities to its customers who may require these facilities for various purpose. The guarantees may broadly be divided in two categories as under :
q Financial guarantees ‑ Guarantees to discharge financial
obligations to the customers.
q Performance guarantees ‑ Guarantees for due performance of a
contract by customers.
The RBI guidelines for sanctioning guarantee facilities have already been discussed earlier in this chapter. Reserve Bank lays a great emphasis on banks to make prompt payment to the beneficiaries in terms of guarantees issued by them as and when such guarantees are invoked. Other important points/ precautions in respect of availing of these facilities from banks are discussed hereunder:
q As a rule, banks should avoid giving unsecured guarantees in large amounts and for medium and long term period. They should avoid undue concentration of such unsecured guarantee commitments to particular groups of customer and/or trades.
q Unsecured guarantees on account of any individual constituent should be limited to a reasonable proportion of the bank's total unsecured guarantees. Guarantees on behalf of individual should also bear a reasonable proportion to constituent's equity.
q In exceptional cases, banks may give deferred payment guarantees on an unsecured basis for modest amounts to first class customers who have entered into deferred payment arrangements in consonance with Government policy. But such unsecured guarantees should be accommodated within the limits indicated above.
q Guarantees executed on behalf of any individual constituent, or a group of constituents, should be subject to prescribed exposure norms.
q When any bank reaches a stage where it is likely to exceed the norm, it should not undertake any further commitment on account of guarantees.
q Suitable arrangements may be made to keep a watch from time to time about the outstanding guarantees of the bank so as to ensure that it does not exceed the norm.
It is essential to realise that guarantees contain inherent risks and that it would not be in the bank's interest or in the public interest generally to encourage parties to over‑extend their commitments and embark upon enterprises solely relying on the easy availability of guarantee facilities.
q The guarantees are issued by the banks against counter guarantees given to the banks by the customer. The banks may also require a cash margin and/or other securities as per sanction.
q Indian Banks Association has prescribed a standard guarantee form which is generally issued by the banks. Guarantees may be issued in serially numbered security forms.
q Where guarantees are issued in favour of Government Departments banks may adopt Model Form of Bank Guarantee Bond (as per Annexure 2 of Circular No. DBOD.DIR. BC. 16/13.03.00/2003‑2004 dt.22 8.2003). Further, as advised by the Government of India, any alterations/additions to the clauses of this bond, if considered necessary. Shall not be one‑sided but shall be made in agreement with the guaranteeing bank.
q After the period of guarantee has expired efforts should be made to arrange return of the guarantee by the beneficiary to the bank.
q Banks are not allowed to execute guarantes covering inter‑company deposits/ loans accepted by NBFC/firms from other. NBFC/firms.
q Banks may issue guarantees favouring the financial institutions or other banks or lending agencies for the loans extended by the latter, on fulfilment of prescribed conditions.
q However, in regard to rehabilitation of sick/weak industrial units, in exceptional cases, where banks are unable to participate in rehabilitation packages due to temporary liquidity constraints, such banks may extend guarantees in favour of the banks which take up their additional share. These guarantees will remain in existence till such time the banks providing additional finance against guarantees are re‑compensated.
q Guarantees can be issued favouring HUDCO/ State Housing Boards and similar bodies/organisations for the loans granted to private borrowers who are unable to offer clear and marketable title to property. However, banks must satisfy themselves regarding the capacity of the borrowers to adequately service such loans.
q Banks may issue guarantees on behalf of their clients in favour of Development Agencies/Boards (like IREDA, NHB etc.) for obtaining soft loans/other forms of development assistance.
q sBanks have discretion to issue guarantees favouring other lending agencies, in respect of infrastructure projects alone provided the guarantor bank also takes a funding share in the project to the extent of at least 5% of the project cost and undertakes normal credit appraisal, monitoring and follow‑up of the project.